Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD / ADHD)
ADD/ADHD are brain disorders that affects the way a person thinks and behaves and is marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development. Inattention means a person wanders off task, lacks persistence, has difficulty sustaining focus, and is disorganized. Hyperactivity means a person seems to move about constantly, including in situations in which it is not appropriate; or excessively fidgets, taps, or talks. In adults, it may be extreme restlessness or wearing others out with constant activity. Impulsivity means a person makes hasty actions that occur in the moment without first thinking about them and that may have high potential for harm; or a desire for immediate rewards or inability to delay gratification. An impulsive person may be socially intrusive and excessively interrupt others or make important decisions without considering the long-term consequences.
What are the symptoms of ADD/ADHD?
Inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. Some people with ADHD only have problems with one of the behaviors (ADD), while others have both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. It is normal to have some inattention, unfocused motor activity and impulsivity, but for people with ADHD, these behaviors are more severe, occur more often, and interfere with or reduce the quality of how they function socially or in a job.
People with symptoms of inattention may often:
- Overlook or miss details, make careless mistakes, lack follow through on instructions, forgetful
- Have problems sustaining attention in tasks or play, including conversations, lectures, or lengthy reading; doesn’t seem to listen when spoken to directly, easily distracted
- Have problems organizing tasks and activities, such as what to do in sequence, keeping materials and belongings in order, having messy work and poor time management, and failing to meet deadlines
- Avoid or dislike tasks that require sustained mental effort, such as schoolwork or homework, or for teens and older adults, preparing reports, completing forms or reviewing lengthy papers
- Lose things necessary for tasks or activities (keys, phone, school books)
People with symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity may often:
- Fidget and squirm in their seats, talk non-stop
- Leave their seats in situations when staying seated is expected, such as in the classroom or in the office
- Run or dash around or climb in situations where it is inappropriate or, in teens and adults, often feel restless
- Be unable to play or engage in hobbies quietly
- Be constantly in motion or “on the go,” or act as if “driven by a motor”
- Blurt out an answer before a question has been completed, finish other people’s sentences, or speak without waiting for a turn in conversation
- Interrupt or intrude on others, for example in conversations, games, or activities
How is ADD/ADHD diagnosed?
A diagnosis of ADD/ADHD requires a comprehensive evaluation by a licensed clinician with expertise in ADD/ADHD. For a person to receive a diagnosis of ADD/ADHD, the symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity must be chronic or long-lasting, impair the person’s functioning, and cause the person to fall behind normal development for his or her age. It is also important for a clinician to ensure that any ADD/ADHD symptoms are not due to another medical or psychiatric condition.
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Please remember this information is intended for educational purposes only and should not substitute medical advice from a healthcare provider.